# Morally Indiscriminate Pedophiles and Invisible Ring: Psychopaths That Cause Suicide Or Murder Thru Targeting And Harassment

### To The Police, Mayor, And FBI

We have prisons for a reason, I have given you more than enough data to show that my experiences are real, and I expect you to do a proper covert investigation. My personal experiences, especially considering my knowledge in chemical engineering and biological sciences, should be weighted heavily when evaluating the below data.

## Summary

Sadly, Targeting[1-3;5] and gang stalking is real, and some psychopaths are using the dark web, computer hacking[Quotes, 19,11,12],

Video: Gang Stalking, Electronic Harassment – How the System Works[1]

Quote: “But some simple software lets just about anyone sitting next to you at your local coffee shop watch you browse the Web and even assume your identity online.”[19]

Quote: “Until recently, only determined and knowledgeable hackers with fancy tools and lots of time on their hands could spy while you used your laptop or smartphone at Wi-Fi hot spots. But a free program called Firesheep, released in October, has made it simple to see what other users of an unsecured Wi-Fi network are doing and then log on as them at the sites they visited.”[19]

Pedophile Quote: “Barry Ardolf, 46, repeatedly hacked into his next-door neighbors’ Wi-Fi network in 2009, and used it to try and frame them for child pornography, sexual harassment, various kinds of professional misconduct and to send threatening e-mail to politicians, including Vice President Joe Biden.”[11]

Pedophile Quote: “Within three days, investigators determined the homeowner had been telling the truth: If someone was downloading child pornography through his wireless signal, it wasn’t him. About a week later, agents arrested a 25-year-old neighbor and charged him with distribution of child pornography. The case is pending in federal court.”[12]

“Voice to Skull” and other Radio Frequency equipment to affect people and neighbors[Quotes, 1-15]. Your neighbor could very well be a sociopath, psychopath–serial killer included, or an average citizen with the “invisible ring,” that is trying to cause your suicide, murder, or other violent act. In the latter case, I think psychologist would classify them as a sociopath or psychopath as well. They could be just like Internet trolls[6].

I am experiencing electronic harassment by my neighbors, gang stalking and electronic harassment by Eugene, Oregon, community, I have written about it, Secret Service has visited me because of my experiences, Secret Service has called both my brothers and said I am not dangerous and trying to help them, and, personally, I believe it is the ethical dilemma of the invisible ring–Would you be a psychopath or network with one or many if invisible? In my case, it is because I blew the whistle on Abbott Laboratories[8].

## Electronic Harassment

1962 Abstract Quote: “The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomenon to the attention of physiologists. Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation. Attempts were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and acoustic energy. The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by the rf transmitter’s modulator. Peak power density is a critical factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 db, a peak power density of approximately 275 mw/ cm2 is needed to induce the perception at carrier frequencies of 425 mc and I ,31 o mc. The average power density can be at least as low as 400 pw/cm2. The evidence for the various possible sites of the electromagnetic energy sensor are discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.” [4]

Pins and Needles Quote: “With somewhat different transmitter parameters, we can induce perception of severe buffeting of the head, without such apparent vestibular symptoms as dizziness of nausea. Changing transmitter parameters again, one can induce a “pins-and-needles” sensation.”[4]

Quote:“A significant amount of research has been concerned with the effects of radio-frequency (rf) energy on organisms (electromagnetic energy between 1 kc and 100 Gc). Typically, this work has been concerned with determining damage resulting from body temperature increase. The average power densities used have been on the order of 0.1 – 1 w/cm^2 used over many minutes to several hours.”[4]

Microwatt Quote: “In contrast, using average power densities measured in microwatts per square centimeter, we have found that other effects, which are transient, can be induced with this energy. Further, these effects occur the instant the transmitter is turned on. With appropriate modulation, the perception of various sounds can be induced in clinically deaf, as well as normal human subjects at a distance of inches up to thousands of feet from the transmitter.” [4]

Note, I have experienced “Pins-and-Needles,” gastrointestinal discomfort, feelings that my brain is expanding and contracting, and audio. Reference [4] shows that each is possible, and the technology has been around prior to 1962. I believe Kip Kinkle was affected by the same “foundation” of Eugene psychopaths that is affecting me. I have read that Kip Kinkle does not hear voices and thinks Eugene/Springfield is evil. I must agree because citizens know electronic harassment happens and they turn a blind eye.

## The Technology Can Be Built Easily[3], And Can Be Small

Video Time: 17:35-18:40: Spark Gap can send out a broad range of frequencies[3].

Video Time: 18:38 – 19:08: Wider the gap, the lower the frequency; broad range of frequencies by adjusting gap[3]. Frequencies can affect physiological functioning[3,7].

Video Time: 22:07: Cell Phone jammer made (approximately \$40.00 cost) made with copper pipe and automotive spark plug as spark gap. Size of cavity controls frequency.[3]

Video Time: 24:21–25:01: RBoC: Radio Blast Cannon is a high energy device to cause a computer to be destroyed.[3]

Video Time: 59:50: Ten amps will kill a person easily, and it only takes a dozen milliamps to stop the heart.[3]

Video Time: 1:04:36: Laws against energy weapons. There are laws against cell phone jammers.[3]

Video Time: 1:10:06–1:12:12: Radio weapons can generate biological effects. Tail end, no body will admit to experimenting on humans.[3]

Video Time: 1:12:32–1:13:35: Ultrasonic weapons, ear, me having ringing in the ears.[3]

Video Time: 1:13:25: He says he does all things with ultrasonic weapons, but he also says it is hypothetical. Above, he says nobody would admit to it. He also talks about the gut-buster and producing a sound that is resonate with gastrointestinal tracts, it works, it is not to hard, and it is real close to 16 Hz but he did not say that.[3]

Video Time: 1:14:30: His discussion was about low frequency applications.[3]

Video: Defcon 8: Radio Energy Weapons (Complete)[3]

## Serial Killers On The Loose–Pedophile and Sexual Trafficking Network

Frequency of Serial Killers Gender by Date Quote (Year, Number):1900-Men: 18; Women: 11; 1910-Men: 30; Women: 12; 1920-Men: 43; Women: 12; 1930- Men: 43; Women: 8; 1940-Men: 54; Women: 8; 1950-Men: 66; Women: 12; 1960-Men: 198; Women: 18; 1970-Men: 536; Women: 33; 1980-Men: 706; Women: 59; 1990-Men: 673; Women: 53; 2000-Men: 410; Women: 29; 2010-Men: 93; Women: 5.”[9]

Note, the internet seemed to help reduce the number of serial killers. Likely because of incriminating data.

Quote:Average IQ: 94.1; Median IQ: 86.5; Lowest: 54; Highest: 165.”[9]

Quote:Type: Organized: 112; Disorganized: 66; Mixed: 8″[9]

Quote:Number of Kills: Two: 50; Three: 47; Four: 20; Five: 15; More than five: 86″[9]

Note, some research has shown that the average IQ of a pedophile is below 100 (average) as well, but not every pedophile is a serial killer and not every serial killer is a pedophile. As seen below, the Morally Indiscriminant pedophile/sexual trafficker is the likely serial killer[Quote, 10].

## Pedophiles: I Believe Eugene, Oregon, Has Serial Killers

Please note that I am an ex-Federal Law Enforcement Agent with the FDA, I have taken a basic criminal profiling class with the “Reids” called “The Reid Technique of Interviewing and Interrogation,” which is taught to FBI, FDA, NSA, and CIA, and an Eugene cop, he called himself “Lars,” harassed me in 2010 and said he knew a bunch of “Reids.” I had said in my home that the Reids could catch them in lies because the psychopaths using Radio Frequency said they could not be caught in lies. I also know, from my Reid training, that psychopaths are caught in lies just as easily as normal people. The difference, though, is that psychopaths get mad at their intellectual failure instead of worrying about the consequence of serving a prison term or receiving the death penalty. The people gang-stalking and electronic harassing me in Eugene, I have heard their audio at the Eugene YMCA, West 11th Walmart, and other places in Eugene, Oregon. They have bragged that they are sexual traffickers/pedophiles and they have corrupt police on their side. I-5 is the only North/South interstate, The Oregonian said Portland was one of the worse sexual trafficking locations in the US, and one can easily deduce that sexual trafficking is a main source of business in Eugene, Oregon, too[Quote, 16]. The average age of a child is 13 to 15. They also record audio in my home and hacked my computer[Quotes, 11, 12].

February 2016 Quote: “Rewind. Oregon, as a state has a the 9th highest amount of strip clubs per capita at 63,806.17. Portland itself has 50, whereas Seattle has about 4. So? Well, Oregon also comes in at 19th for called in cases sex trafficking through the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC). That’s only the reports that are called in, or reported. There are many more found after the fact.”[16]

Pedophiles, sexual traffickers included, are using the dark web and targeting innocent people for practice in the USA/World. They are practicing to kidnap your child, make you seem crazy if they molest your child, if they photograph your child, etc [Quote, 10]. My ex-coworkers from Abbott Laboratories-Eric Nielsen, Sara, Chase, Kathy Ford, Roger Quan-connected with a criminal enterprise (traffickers) to murder me via suicide, cancer, or other abnormal death[Quote, 13,14]. Note, corporations have pedophiles and child molesters too, and the FBI specifies that not all pedophiles actually molest[10]. Still, I believe I have been affected by a Morally Indiscriminate[Quote, 10] that probably found each other on the dark web[See End Quotes].

FBI Pedophile Quote: “Their victims tend to be targeted based primarily on availability and opportunity. They are more likely to use practical tools (e.g., weapons, lock picks, gloves, masks) and learn from and then modify their criminal sexual behavior. Their patterns of criminal sexual behavior are more likely to involve the previously discussed concept of method of operation (MO).[10, Page 34]

Abbott Laboratories Quote: “I called David Pacitti, vice president of global marketing for Abbott Laboratories’ cardiac-plumbing division, to ask why he seems to want goons to beat me up in the newspaper parking lot.

“Don’t you have connections in Baltimore?????” Pacitti e-mailed a subordinate regarding a January column I wrote on heart-artery stents. “Someone needs to take this writer outside and kick his ass! Do I need to send in the Philly mob?”[13]

Abbott Laboratories Quote: “Corporations, such as General Electric, Abbot Laboratories, and Halliburton, as been pointed out, have had an extensive history of illegal practices. Other corporations have a reputation of ethical standards and behavior such as Proctor and Gamble, Hewlett-Packard, and Borg Warner.”[14]

Whistleblower Quote: “For at least eight insiders, the financial consequences were reportedly devastating. One said, “I just wasn’t able to get a job. It went longer and longer. Then I lost — I had a rental house that my kids were [using to go] to school. I had to sell the house. Then I had to sell the personal home that I was in. I had my cars repossessed. I just went — financially I went under. Then once you’re financially under? Then no help. Then it really gets difficult. I lost my 401[k]. I lost everything. Absolutely everything” (Relator 17).” [Relator = pharmaceutical whistleblower] [10]

Pedophile Quote: “Barry Ardolf, 46, repeatedly hacked into his next-door neighbors’ Wi-Fi network in 2009, and used it to try and frame them for child pornography, sexual harassment, various kinds of professional misconduct and to send threatening e-mail to politicians, including Vice President Joe Biden.”[11]

Pedophile Quote: “Within three days, investigators determined the homeowner had been telling the truth: If someone was downloading child pornography through his wireless signal, it wasn’t him. About a week later, agents arrested a 25-year-old neighbor and charged him with distribution of child pornography. The case is pending in federal court.”[12]

FBI Pedophile Quote: “Morally Indiscriminate: For this offender the sexual victimization of children is simply part of a general pattern of abuse in his life. Mental-health clinicians refer to this type of individual as a psychopath or having anti-social personality disorder. He is a user and abuser of people. He abuses his wife, friends, and coworkers. He lies, cheats, or steals whenever he thinks he can get away with it. He molests children for a simple reason — “Why not?” His primary victim criteria are vulnerability and opportunity. He has the urge, a child is available, and so he acts. He typically uses force, lures, or manipulation to obtain his victims. He may abduct his victims using trickery or physical force. Although his victims frequently are strangers or acquaintances, his victims can also be his own children or those of his live-in girlfriend. An incestuous father (or mother) might be this morally indiscriminate offender. Because he is an impulsive person whose conscience is inconsistent with society standards, he is an especially high risk to molest pubescent children. Such acts may be criminal but not necessarily sexually deviant. He frequently collects detective magazines or adult pornography of a violent nature. He may collect some child pornography especially that which depicts pubescent children. Even when his child victims are acquaintances, he may still use threats and force to overpower or control those victims.”[10]

Before the death of Churchill High school students, my neighbors told me via Radio Frequency they knew a shooting would happen. The community near my home placed two dead ducks on my roadway that leads to Bailey Hill Road. I called the dead ducks in, one duck disappeared, and then there were three dead ducks. Within a month, there were three murders. When I was here between 2008-2010, a news agency had announced that Eugene, police, was ordering citizens to quit killing and using dead animals in code. During that same period, I saw three dead cats on my bike route at different times, and some were disemboweled. I was being retaliated against during this period as well, and a corrupt cop told me to quit talking about “The Nielsens”, which happens to be a prominent family in Eugene. I blew the whistle on Eric Nielsen from Abbott Laboratories. As mentioned in other notes, my niece was hit by a hit and run driver after I was told family would die because I blew the whistle.

One “set” of recent (2015) murders was teens at Churchill high school by a shooter. I believe that shooter was targeted[1-9] by psychopaths in Eugene, Oregon. After this death, the other death was a “set’ that included a man who was found in a city culvert that was locked. I believe corrupt cops were involved with both sets. The culvert man had blocked the flow of fluids. I believe the group of psychopaths, because they “gang bully/gang stalk” and include people with the invisible ring who actually have empathetic feeling, murdered this person to shut others up. It is a way for a group of maybe 10-15 psychopaths to threaten larger numbers. Also, some empathetic people are likely to commit suicide, and this would make the psychopaths happy. Since three deaths have happened near a month period, the group, larger number included, can be classified as serial killers.

## Some Pedophiles Cook And Eat Children

My neighbors have bragged that they are cannibals[Quote, 15].

If I die from cancer, heart attack, murder, or a suicide that looks like murder, contact my brothers and tell them to contact the Secret Service. They are to tell the Secret Service the truth. My brothers were contacted by the Secret Service because of me and told that I am not dangerous and trying to help them. The Secret Service is to contact the FBI and force an investigation into my death–cancer, heart attack, or suicide included. See, these very stupid people said they wanted to sexually traffic the President’s children and then make a snuff film. You must know that sexual traffickers and some pedophiles will grind children up and feed them to animals, humans included. They will cook children[Quote, 15].

Quote: “A Boston-area man, who was planning to kidnap children, lock them in a basement dungeon, rape and eat them, should be imprisoned for at least 27 years, federal authorities said in court documents filed this week.”[15]

Quote: “When his home in Worcester was searched last year, authorities found tens of thousands of computer images and videos of child pornography and 4,500 exchanges of child pornography between Portway and the people he chatted with online. The images included children being cooked and prepared to be eaten, court documents said. Those photographs are sealed.”[15]

## Dark Web

Quote: “It’s not out of the question to suggest that the part of the web that hasn’t been indexed is actually bigger than the part that has.” [17]

Quote: “If you’re a terrorist, paedophile, gun-runner, drug dealer, sex trafficker or serious criminal of that ilk then the shadows of the Deep Web, and particularly the Dark Web, offer a safer haven then the part occupied by, say, Naked Security or Wikipedia.”[17]

Quote: “Although Memex will eventually have a very broad range of applications, the project’s initial focus is on tackling human trafficking and slavery.” [17]

Quote: “In September 2014, sex trafficker Benjamin Gaston was sentenced to a minimum of 50 years in prison having been found guilty of “Sex Trafficking, as well as Kidnapping, Criminal Sexual Act, Rape, Assault, and Sex Abuse – all in the First Degree”.[17]

Quote: “For example, an ad attempting to sell the sexual services of a woman or child in one locale might pop up in another location and include a regional address or phone number. White says this kind of data has been used by investigators to find women who were being trafficked.[18]

“You can imagine a scenario where people are moving around the country with women and are interested in advertising them—they post ads in different places. It can involve the same women and some of the same info like phone numbers.”[18]

Quote: “To achieve this goal, Memex will not only scrape content from the millions of regular web pages that get ignored by commercial search engines but will also chronicle thousands of sites on the so-called Dark Web—such as sites like the former Silk Road drug emporium that are part of the TOR network’s Hidden Services.”[18]

## Referencecs:

[1] Targeting Must End. (2015, Nov. 04). Gang Stalking, Electronic Harassment – How the System Works. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 14). Available from: https://youtu.be/plrHU4VKbRM

[2] Targeting Must End. (2015, Sep. 26). Electronic Harassment and Gang Stalking – Yet Another Point of View. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 14). youtube[online]. Available from: https://youtu.be/dVZnGYrqnkY

[3] GBPPR2. (2011, Jan 23). Defcon 8: Radio Energy Weapons (Complete). Retrieved (2012). Available from: https://youtu.be/6fu9M6f59j0

[4] Kitteh, Miss. (2013, Jan. 20). Dr. Joe Pompei explains audio spotlight on Mad Labs. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 15). Available from: https://youtu.be/P5Tv9Wmcbf4

[5] OSIInformers. (2012, Oct. 06). Organized Stalking And Mind Control. Retrieved (2011). youtube[online]. Available from: https://youtu.be/BZJLqVgulZQ

[6] Golbeck, Jennifer, PhD. (2014, Sep. 18). Internet Trolls Are Narcissists, Psychopaths, and Sadists. Trolls will lie, exaggerate, and offend to get a response. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 17). Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/your-online-secrets/201409/internet-trolls-are-narcissists-psychopaths-and-sadists

[7] Frey, A.H., General Electric (1962): Human Auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy. J. Appl Physiol. 17, 689-692. Available from: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BxgSPGHH3R4aSldGcWIzRFQ3M3M/view?usp=sharing

[7a] Golbeck, Jennifer, PhD. (2014, Sep. 18). Internet Trolls Are Narcissists, Psychopaths, and Sadists. Trolls will lie, exaggerate, and offend to get a response. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 17). Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/your-online-secrets/201409/internet-trolls-are-narcissists-psychopaths-and-sadists

[8] Harding, Byron. (2016, Feb. 17). Schizoaffective or Whistleblower Retaliation? New Trusted Scientific Evidence Suggests Retaliation. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 18). Facebook[online]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/notes/byron-harding/schizoaffective-or-whistleblower-retaliation-new-trusted-scientific-evidence-sug/10153561522753477

[9] Aamodt, M. G. (2013, October 19). Serial killer statistics. Retrieved (insert date of retrieval) skdb.fgcu[online]. Available from http://skdb.fgcu.edu/public/Serial%20Killer%20Statistics%2019OCT2013.pdf

[10] Kesselheim, Aaron S., MD, JD, MPH; Studdert, David M., LL.B., Sc.D., MPH; Mello, Michelle M., JD, PhD, M.Phil.; Whistle-Blowers’ Experiences in Fraud Litigation against Pharmaceutical Companies. The New England Journal of Medicine[online]. 2010. vol. 362, pp. 1832-1839. Available from: New England Journal of Medicine: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr0912039

[11] Kravets, David. (2011, July 12). WI-FI-Hacking Neighbor From Hell Sentenced To 18 Years. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 19). wired[online]. Available from: http://www.wired.com/2011/07/hacking-neighbor-from-hell/

[12] Associated Press. (2011, June 24). Innocent Man Accused Of Child Pornography After Neighbor Pirates His WiFi. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 20). huffingtonpost[online]. Available from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/04/24/unsecured-wifi-child-pornography-innocent_n_852996.html

[13] Hancock, Jay. Threat betrays big medicine’s profit obsession. Baltimore Sun[online]. 2010. Available from: < a href=”http://www.baltimoresun.com/health/bs-bz-hancock-stents-abbott-20101206,0,5226901.column&#8221; Target=”_blank”>http://www.baltimoresun.com/health/bs-bz-hancock-stents-abbott-20101206,0,5226901.column

[14] Marshall, Clinard B.; Yeager, Peter C. Corporate Crime. Transaction Publishers[online]. 2006. Available from: http://books.google.com/books?id=uNM9ybnZxj8C&pg=PR38&dq=”Abbott+Laboratories”+corporate Google Books. ISBN: 1-4128-0493-0

[15] Mungin, Lateef; Cannold, Julie. (2013, Sep. 13). Massachusetts man plotted to kill and eat children, feds say. Retrieved (2016, Jan. 28). cnn[online]. Available from: http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/12/justice/cannibal-eat-children-case/index.html

[16] Rieckmann-James, Morgan. (2016, Feb. 16). Sex Trafficking in the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 20). ccrampart[online]. Available from: http://ccrampart.org/788/news/sex-trafficking-in-the-pacific-northwest/

[17] Stockley, Mark. (2015, Feb. 16). Memex – DARPA’s search engine for the Dark Web. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 08). nakedsecurity.sophos[online]. Available from: https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2015/02/16/memex-darpas-search-engine-for-the-dark-web/

[18] Zetter, Kim. (2015, Feb. 02). Darpa IS Developing A Search Engine For The Dark Web. Retrieved (2015, Feb.). Available from: http://www.wired.com/2015/02/darpa-memex-dark-web/

[19] Murphy, Kate. (2011, Feb. 16). New Hacking Tools Pose Bigger Threats to Wi-fi Users. Retrieved (2016, Feb. 19). nytimes[online]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/technology/personaltech/17basics.html

# Chapter 24: Fundamentals of Mass Transfer. Example 2

Welty, James R.; Wicks, Charles E.; Wilson, Robert E. Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, third edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Example 2

Evaluate the diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in air at 20$\textdegree$C and atmospheric pressure. Compare this value with the experimental value reported in Appendix Table J.1.

Will be using the following diffusivity equation:

$D_{AB} = \frac{0.001858 T^{3/2} (\frac{1}{M_A} + \frac{1}{M_B})^{1/2}}{P \delta_{AB}^2 \Omega_D}$

We have temperature and pressure. We can calculate the molecular weights via a periodic chart. $\delta$ and $\Omega$ can be obtained from Tables K.1 and K.2.

From K.2 of the appendix values $\delta$ and $\frac{\epsilon}{\kappa}$ are obtained:

Carbon dioxide: $\delta$ in $\AA$, 3.996 and $\frac{\epsilon_{CO_2}}{\kappa}$ in K, 190

Air: $\delta$ in $\AA$, 3.617 and $\frac{\epsilon_{N_2}}{\kappa}$ in K, 97

$\delta_{AB} = \frac{(\delta_A + \delta_B)}{2} = \frac{(3.996 \AA + 3.617 \AA)}{2} = 3.806 \AA$

$\frac{\epsilon_{AB}}{\kappa}= \sqrt{(\frac{\epsilon_{A}}{\kappa})(\frac{\epsilon_B}{\kappa}}) = \sqrt{(190)(97)} = 136$

T = 20 + 273 = 293 K

P = 1 atm

$\frac{\epsilon_{AB}}{\kappa T} = \frac{136}{293} = 0.463$

$\frac{\kappa T}{\epsilon_{AB}} = \frac{1}{0.463} = 2.16$

$\Omega_D (Table K.1) = 1.047$

This value was obtained by interpolation

$\frac{y - y_0}{x - x_0} = \frac{y_1 - y_0}{x_1 - x_0}$

$y - y_0 = \frac{y_1 - y_0}{x_1 - x_0}(x - x_0)$

$y = \frac{y_1 - y_0}{x_1 - x_0}(x - x_0) + y_0$

From Table K.1

$y_i = \Omega$ and $x_i = \frac{\kappa T}{\epsilon_{AB}}$

and

$x = 2.16$

Interpolate

$y = \frac{(1.041-1.057)}{(2.20-2.10)}(2.16 - 2.10) + 1.057 = 1.047 = \Omega_D$

We have all variable except molecular weights. Considering the most prevalent gasses:

$M_{CO_2} = M_C + 2M_O = 12 + 2(16) = 12 + 32 = 44$

$M_{Air} = \%N_2 (M_{N_2}) + \%O_2(M_{O_2}) = 0.79(28) + 0.21(32) = 29$

Now, we have all the information needed to calculate the diffusivity of $CO_2$ in air when using:

$D_{AB} = \frac{0.001858 T^{3/2} (\frac{1}{M_A} + \frac{1}{M_B})^{1/2}}{P \delta_{AB}^2 \Omega_D}$

$D_{AB} = \frac{0.001858(293^{3/2})(\frac{1}{44} + \frac{1}{29})^{1/2}}{1 atm(3.806 \AA)^2 (1.047)} = 0.147 \frac{cm^2}{s}$

Now, we want to compare to the experimental value that is reported in Table J.1

$T, K = 273, D_{AB}P \frac{cm^2 atm}{s} = \frac{0.136 \frac{cm^2 atm}{s}}{1 atm} = 0.136 \frac{cm^2}{s}$

Since the value is reported at 273 K, must use a conversion equation to compare at 293 K

$\frac{D_{AB,T_1}}{D_{AB,T_2}} = (\frac{T_1}{T_2})^{3/2}(\frac{\Omega_{D,T_2}}{\Omega_{D,T_1}})$

at $T_1 = 293 K$ and $\Omega_{D, T_1} = 1.047$

at $T_2 = 273 K$ and $\Omega_{D, T_2} = ?$ from Table Table K.1

$\frac{\epsilon_AB}{\kappa}\frac{1}{T_2} = 136\frac{1}{273} = 0.498$

$\frac{\kappa T}{\epsilon_{AB}} = \frac{1}{0.498} = 2.01$

Once again, interpolation of Table K.1 is needed

$\frac{y - y_0}{x - x_0} = \frac{y_1 - y_0}{x_1 - x_0}$

$y = \frac{y_1 - y_0}{x_1 - x_0}(x-x_0) + y_0$

$x = 2.01$

$y = \frac{1.057 -1.075}{2.10-2.00}(2.01-2.00) + 1.075 = 1.074 = \Omega_{D, T_2}$

Since we have all the values for the conversion equation

$D_{AB, 293} = (\frac{293}{273})^{3/2}(\frac{1.074}{1.047})(0.136) = 0.155 \frac{cm^2}{s}$

The diffusivity of carbon dioxide in air

Calculated: $0.147 \frac{cm^2}{s}$ and Corrected Experimental: $0.155 \frac{cm^2}{s}$

Percent Difference

$\frac{Calculated - Corrected Experimental}{Corrected Experimental} x 100= \frac{0.147 - 0.155}{0.155} x 100=5.16\%$

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